Vij was born to Shri. Bhim Sain Vij, a railway employee and Smt Raj Rani Vij. He chose to remain unmarried.
Vij undertook primary education at Railway Primary School, Ambala Cantonment. In 1968, he completed secondary school at Banarasi Dass High School, Ambala (now known as Banarasi Dass Senior Secondary School) then affiliated to the Punjab University, Chandigarh (now affiliated to Haryana Board of School Education ) In 1972, Vij went on to complete the B.Sc degree from Sanatan Dharma College, then affiliated to the Punjab University, Chandigarh.
Anil Vij joined Akhil Bhartiya Vidharthi Parishad (ABVP), a student wing of RSS, while he was studying at S. D. College, Ambala Cantt. In 1970, he became General Secretary of ABVP. Vij joined the State Bank of India in 1974. In 1990, when Sushama Sawraj was elected to Rajya Sabha, the Ambala Cantonment seat became vacant. Vij was asked to resign from service and contest a by-election by the BJP Party. He contested the election and won. In 1996 and 2000, he contested as an independent candidate and won both times.Haryana Health Minister Anil Vij on Sunday said the state would be developed as the capital of Ayurveda and Yoga. With a view to achieve this target, the state government has already passed the proposal for setting up AYUSH University in Kurukshetra, Vij said speaking after inaugurating the Panchkarma Centre established by AYUSH Department in Ambala Cantt. Anil Vij said a five-storey civil hospital was being constructed in Ambala Cantt at a cost of Rs 40 crore which would have Cath Lab, AYUSH services and other necessary facilities. A building of same size has been approved for housing the Regional Tertiary Cancer Centre. In 2005, Vij lost re-election. In 2009, he was elected as Bhartiya Janata Party's Member of the Legislative Assembly (India) (MLA) from Ambala Cantonment constituency in the Haryana Legislative Assembly.
Cabinet Minister of Haryana
On 26 October 2014, Vij was inducted in the Government of Haryana as a Cabinet Minister. He has independent charge of three departments: Department of Health Services, Haryana, Department of Elections, Haryana, Elections Commission, Haryana, and Department of Sports & Youth Affairs, Haryana.